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MEBGEN™ RASKET KIT RAS mutation detection kit

Background
Anti-EGFR therapy

EGFR-RAS signaling and anti-EGFR therapeutic antibodies EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor expressed in epithelial tissues to play an important role in the growth of cells. However, EGFR is also overexpressed in many solid tumors and it transmits signals for the proliferation and survival of the cancer cells. Cetuximab (Erbitax®) and panitumumab (Vectibix®) are the antibody drugs targeting EGFR as anti-colorectal cancer agents.

The therapeutic effects of the anti-EGFR antibodies were reported to correlate with the presence of mutations in exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) of the KRAS gene. Multiple retrospective studies have suggested that the anti-EGFR antibodies cannot be clinically effective in patients with a KRAS exon 2 mutation.

Moreover, recent clinical studies [i.e., PRIME Study (Study 20050203) , PEAK Study and FIRE-3 Study] reported that decisions concerning the most appropriate therapeutic medications are feasible by using information on not only KRAS exon 2 mutations but also KRAS exon 3 and 4 mutations and NRAS exon 2, 3 and 4 mutations.

In Europe, the European Medical Agency (EMA) published a revised summary of product characteristics (SmPC) for anti-EGFR therapeutic antibodies that changed the administered patients from "wild-type KRAS" to "wild-type RAS".

In United States, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) clinical practice guideline in oncology has been revised in 2014 to recommend that clinicians test to detect both KRAS and NRAS for the anti-EGFR antibody therapy.